History of Georgia
Georgia is a small country with a great and ancient history. For centuries it has been a walk of life of struggle of the great empires because of its strategic location. However, it still managed to survive and maintain statehood. Humans settled here 1 800,000 years ago and the first European was a Homo Georgicus - a Georgian man. Starting with the Homo Georgicus living in the cave, the processes of evolution and cultural development were continuously going on here.
In the II millennium B.C, the first Georgian states the Diaohi and Kolkha were formed. They were overthrown by nomadic tribes invading the north. In the VI-IV centuries B.C the kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia were formed. The power of Colchis was also reflected in ancient Greek myth, where the Argonauts traveled to find the Golden Fleece. The creation of Georgian alphabet is associated with the king of Iberia Parnavaz.
The IV century turned out a turning point for Georgia. In 326 St. Nino Cappadocia introduced a new religion- Christianity in the country. The proclamation of Christianity as the state religion significantly determined the future development of the country. In the Middle Ages, the royal principalities were formed in Georgia, after which the struggle for unification began. The country was united by the greatest Georgian king in the XII century - David the Builder. He managed to make the region of Georgia the strongest state. The golden age of our country is considered to be the period of King Tamar's reign. At this time, the country's power and development reached its peak. The strengthening of the country has led to the flourishing of medieval Georgian architecture, painting and poetry. The Golden Age was followed by the decline, collapse, and domination of Iran and the Ottomans.
In the XVIII century Eastern Georgia was united again and gained independence, though for a short time. Due to future threats, by the Treaty of Georgievsk in 1783, the kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti became the Protectorate of Russia, and in 1801 it became its regular governorate. In 1918, after the overthrow of the Russian Empire, Georgia gained political independence. But freedom did not last long. In 1921, Soviet Russia occupied Georgia. After centuries of unequal struggles, in 1991 Georgia finally gained independence. However, the bloodshed and struggle for survival did not end with independence.
Since the 1990s, after the war in Abkhazia, the region of Abkhazia has used de facto independence from Georgia and is entirely dependent on the Russian Federation. In 1991-1992, hostilities also developed in the Tskhinvali region, where the separatist forces declared independence under the name - "The Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia". After Russian-Georgian war in 2008, Russian Federation, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru recognized independence of “The Republic of South Ossetia” and the entire territory of the region is still controlled by the Russian occupation army.
Georgia has endured invasions of such great empires as Byzantium, Persia, the Mongol Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and others. Despite the constant gale that has been going on for millennia, Georgia is a country that never loses its vitality and thirst for freedom. It struggles to move forward and never gives up.